Nutritional Values

EVALUATION OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF

With the percentage value of essential amino acids regarded to be adequate for ideal protein food for infants 39%, for children 26% and for adult 11%, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf having 44.80%, in addition to important vitamins (carotene and vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine) and Minerals (P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn,Fe), has the potential to make significant nutritional and health contribution to growing population of many different regions; ..... Also, the presence of many important phyto-chemicals like alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, phlobatannins, triterpenes, resins, coumarone, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanins, anthracene derivatives, lignans, xanthenes, oxalate, Phytate, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z) and its esters, 1,2,3-Propanetriol and its derivatives, n-Octadecanoic acid, n-Octacosane, and 2,6-dihexadecanoate among others in the plant really hold promises for the future.
The American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research 3(6): 177-187 published in 2016

Phytochemical Properties

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, NUTRITIONAL PROFILE AND ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCE DIABETIC MICE

However, this study shows the ability of C.aconitifolius to lower blood glucose level; hereby suggesting that it could serve as a better therapy for diabetes mellitus and paving way for further investigation to identify the actual bioactive compounds responsible. Moreover, we have got novel information on the presence of muslin an active phytonutrient, used in the arrest of bleeding in aneurysms. This might lead to the development of new excellent alternative natural remedy in cardiovascular studies.
IJBCP International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology Print ISSN: 2319-2003 | Online ISSN: 2279-0780

CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS: THERAPEUTIC USE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES. LITERATURE REVIEW

C. aconitifolius is a plant species that has a significant protein content and is rich in flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. These characteristics grant it hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The safety and efficacy of the traditional therapeutic use of chaya is supported by scientific evidence
Verónica Bautista-Robles1, Gabriel Guerrero-Reyes1, Gabriel Isaac Sánchez-Torres1, Felipe de Jesús Parada-Luna1, Juan José Barrios-Gutiérrez1, Dehuí Vázquez-Cerero1, Gudelia Martínez-Sala1, José Isaías Siliceo-Murrieta1

PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTIMICROBAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS OF TREE SPINACH

“This study revealed the ability of C. aconitifolius to inhibit both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria; thereby suggesting that it could serve as a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent and paving way for further investigation to identify the active compounds responsible for the plant biological activity with the required MIC for use in drug development for safe health care delivery. It was also shown that there is increase in antioxidant activity of the extract with concentration; this can serve as a guide to search for compounds with antioxidant activity Thus, identification of the chemical constituents responsible for the antioxidant activities of the plant species may lead to the development of new excellent alternative natural antioxidant.”
Research: Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria Article: Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 7(19), pp. 1317-1322

EVALUATION OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF

“The results of this study showed that the leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius contain useful chemical compounds that medicinal plants with tannins and flavonoids are both medicinal and nutritional which can be utilized for chemotherapeutical purposes and nutritional supplements”
O.U. Orji, U.A. Ibiam, 1 1 1P.M. Aja, 1P.C. Ugwu Okechukwu, 1A.J. Uraku, 3C. Aloke, 2O.D. Obasi and 1B.U. Nwali World Journal of Medical Sciences 13 (3): 213-217, 2016 ISSN 1817-3055

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAF EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA MCVAUGH

“In our previous study, we have proved that the anti-oxidant, antidiabetic activity is associated with the active constituents of Cnidoscolus chayamansa. The present study also provides the evidence that ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases.”
Research: Periyar Maniammai University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India Article: International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2014-15; 6(4); 741-745

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS ON THE LEAVES OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS.

“The leaves of C. aconitifolius have high nutrient potentials and could be used as nutraceuticals in complementary foods.”
Research: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information – US National Library of Medicine

Anti-Inflammatory Properties

HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA (MC VAUGH) LEAF EXTRACT IN CHRONIC MODELS

C. chayamansa possesses good anti-inflammatory activity when used in the acute inflammation model (topical and systemic) and reveals a significant beneficial effect on the chronic inflammation model. In this case, the extract at 900mg/kg favors BW gain; the effect was similar to that of PZB and also reduced the inflammation; this reduction was similar to that of the reference drug. In addition, the extract at both doses also showed good hepatoprotective effect against liver damage caused with antiTB drugs (RIF/INH/PZA
Mariana Z. Pérez-González,1 A. Georgina Siordia-Reyes,2 Patricia Damián-Nava,1 Simón Hernández-Ortega,3,4 Martha L. Macías-Rubalcava, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2018, Article ID 3896517, 12 pages

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS IN RATS AND MICE.

“Our investigations show that C. aconitifolius possesses significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities that should be explored.”
Research: Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information

Anti-Oxidant Properties

CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF EXTRACT PROTECTS AGAINST HEPATIC DAMAGE INDUCED BY CHRONIC ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION IN WISTAR RATS.

Supplementation with CA significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of liver marker enzymes, stabilized the lipid profiles and restored the antioxidants status of ethanol-treated rats. The activities of CA were comparable with KV in the ethanol-treated rats. This observation was supported by histopathological examination of liver slides. These findings suggest the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of CA leaf extract, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.
Research: Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information

PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTIMICROBAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS OF TREE SPINACH

“This study revealed the ability of C. aconitifolius to inhibit both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria; thereby suggesting that it could serve as a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent and paving way for further investigation to identify the active compounds responsible for the plant biological activity with the required MIC for use in drug development for safe health care delivery. It was also shown that there is increase in antioxidant activity of the extract with concentration; this can serve as a guide to search for compounds with antioxidant activity Thus, identification of the chemical constituents responsible for the antioxidant activities of the plant species may lead to the development of new excellent alternative natural antioxidant.”
Research: Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria Article: Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 7(19), pp. 1317-1322

CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA, AN IMPORTANT ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CARDIOPROTECTIVE PLANT USED IN MEXICO.

“All these results are relevant for a better understanding of the therapeutic used of Cnidoscolus chayamansa in the Mexican traditional medicine and highlights its cardioprotective potential.”
Research: Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico. Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information – US National Library of Medicine

Anti-Diabetic Properties

EFFECT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF EXTRACT ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE AND INSULIN LEVELS OF INBRED TYPE 2 DIABETIC MICE.​

“For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice, CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also, the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups.”
Article: International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry
Reseach: Department of Biotechnology,

ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS IN RATS.​

“From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes.”
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information – US National Library of Medicine
Research: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan.

EFFECT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF EXTRACT ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE AND INSULIN LEVELS OF INBRED TYPE 2 DIABETIC MICE

“For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice, CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups.”
Reseach: Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, School of Public Health, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA. Article: Europe Pubmed Central

ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON KEY METABOLIC ENZYMES INVOLVED IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of C.chayamansa at high dose (250mg/kg) and low dose (100mg/kg) exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. This extract also showed improvement in the parameters like body weight, liver glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes as well as regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment.
Reseach: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai Article: International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry.

ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON KEY METABOLIC ENZYMES INVOLVED IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of C.chayamansa at high dose (250mg/kg) and low dose (100mg/kg) exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. This extract also showed improvement in the parameters like body weight, liver glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes as well as regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment.
Reseach: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai Article: International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry.

ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF THE AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN (STZ) INDUCED DIABETES IN WISTAR RAT HEPATOCYTESA

This study verifies the fact that consumption of aqueous extract of leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius has hypoglycaemic effect.
J.C. Mordi Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Current Research Journal of Biological Science 4(2): 164-167, 2012 ISSN: 2041-0778 © Maxwell Scientific Organizational, 2012

ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON KEY METABOLIC ENZYMES INVOLVED IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

“In conclusion, the extract of C. Chayamansa at high dose and low dose exhibited significant anti-hyperglemic activity in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. This extract also showed improvement in the parameters like body weight, liver glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes as well as regeneration of B-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment.”
Reseach: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University,Vallam,Thanjavur.Tamil Nadu, India. Joint Director of Medical Education (Pharmacy) Directorate of Medical Education, Kilpauk, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Article: International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry

Anti-Tumor

ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA AGAINST DALTON’S ASCITIC LYMPHOMA IN MICE.

Results: Both doses of EECC decreased average increase in body weight, reduced the packed cell volume (PCV) viable tumor cell count and increased the life span of DAL treated mice and brought back the hematological parameters, serum enzyme and lipid profile near to normal values. All the values were found to be statistically significant with control group at p<0.01. These observations are suggestive of the protective effect of extracts in Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) Conclusion: All these findings enable to conclude that both doses of EECC possess a protective effect against DAL
. Reseach: Department of Biotechnology, Article: International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Cholesterol

HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA​

“Ethanol extract showed significant hypolipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL level which was similar to the standard drug Atorvastatin. Ethanol extract exhibited significant atherogenic index and percentage protection against hyperlipidemia. These biochemical observations were in turn confirmed by histopathological examinations of aorta, sections and are comparable with the standard hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin. The overall experimental results suggests that the biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids present in the ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa may be responsible for the significant hypolipidemic activity and the results justify the use of Cnidoscolus chayamansa as a significant Hypolipidemic agent.”
Article: Acta Chim. Pharm. Indica: 2(1), 2012, 24-31 ISSN 2277-288X
Research: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, THANJAVUR (T.N.) INDIA

HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC ACTIVITY FROM THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA.

"The aqueous extract (at either doses employed) showed a significant cholesterol reduction (27.9 and 31.1%, for 50 and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively P<0.01). The extract did not inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme, suggesting that its compounds act at another level in cholesterol metabolism." "Our data suggests that the Mexican plant tested has important hypocholesterolemic properties and merits further studies on the clinical applications of these plant extracts."
Research: Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon Mexico Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information - US National Library of Medicine